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Glossary Of Blockchain Terms & Definition

Master the language of the future!

Block Convey's comprehensive blockchain glossary demystifies complex terms and concepts, making it easy to understand the revolutionary world of blockchain technology. No prior knowledge needed! Our glossary provides clear definitions, real-world examples, and informative resources, empowering you to navigate the blockchain landscape with confidence.

Glossary Of Blockchain Terms

Block Convey's blockchain glossary provides concise and clear definitions of key terms in the blockchain and cryptocurrency space, offering users a quick reference guide to enhance their understanding of the industry. Whether you are a novice or an experienced enthusiast, Block Convey's glossary serves as a valuable resource, simplifying complex concepts and fostering a deeper comprehension of blockchain technology.



A term encompassing all cryptocurrencies apart from Bitcoin. Originally conceived as upgraded versions of Bitcoin, Altcoins have transitioned into Utility Tokens, representing projects with diverse use cases in their ecosystems (e.g., LINK for paying Node Operators, BNB for covering transaction fees on Binance).

AMA (Ask Me Anything):

An online event where project representatives address community questions. Conducted through live streams or group calls on platforms like YouTube, Facebook, or Telegram, AMAs serve as a means to engage with supporters, enhance brand visibility, and provide project updates.


An initiative where users receive complimentary tokens from a project. Airdrops come in various forms, such as retroactive rewards, holding and staking incentives, or event-based rewards. Often used in marketing campaigns or ICO introductions to attract users to a project's community.

ASIC (Application-Specific Integrated Circuit):

A specialized integrated circuit designed for a specific purpose. Examples include Bitcoin ASIC miners, which optimize efficiency by dedicating all resources exclusively to Bitcoin mining. 

AML (Anti-Money Laundering):
A legal framework employed by governments globally to combat financial crimes, including money laundering, terrorist financing, fraud, and related offenses.

Ape (Apeing in):
A term used to describe an individual, or the action itself, who purchases a token or NFT shortly after its launch without undertaking thorough prior research.

ATH (All-Time High):
The highest value attained by an asset at any point in its history. Used to denote peak performance or valuation.



In the context of blockchain, bridges serve as connectors linking different blockchains. Since assets adhere to distinct standards on each blockchain, direct exchange between them is not possible. Bridges facilitate interoperability by enabling the seamless transfer of assets across diverse blockchain ecosystems.

BFT (Byzantine Fault Tolerance):
A consensus algorithm within blockchain networks designed to achieve fault tolerance in the presence of malicious actors or nodes. BFT ensures the integrity and security of the network by allowing it to function effectively even when some nodes act maliciously or fail.

The fundamental unit of data in a blockchain, containing a list of transactions. Blocks are linked together chronologically to form the blockchain. Each block typically includes a reference to the previous block (hash) and a timestamp.

A decentralized and distributed digital ledger that records transactions across a network of computers. The ledger is maintained through cryptographic principles, ensuring transparency, security, and immutability of the recorded data.

BTC (Bitcoin):
The first and most well-known cryptocurrency, created by an anonymous entity known as Satoshi Nakamoto. Bitcoin operates on a decentralized peer-to-peer network and is often referred to as digital gold due to its scarcity and store of value characteristics.

The intentional and irreversible removal of cryptocurrency tokens from circulation. Burning tokens is a deflationary mechanism used to reduce the total supply, potentially increasing the value of the remaining tokens.

Bounty / Bug Bounty:

A task that is offered to the community in exchange for a reward upon completion. Bug Bounties could be to audit a project’s smart contract, create marketable content, market research, etc.

Buy The Dip; this means buying coins/tokens when the price drops and they’re cheap.

When investors are bullish, they expect a price to go up in the future and would be comfortable buying coins/tokens at these levels because they believe it will increase even more.
Bull market:

A market in which prices are rising, and investors expect even better returns.


Ethereum's proof-of-stake protocol upgrade (ETH 2.0) designed to replace proof-of-work, improving network scalability and enhancing security by reducing the cost for potential attackers.

A system of power where a central authority controls operations, often associated with a dictatorial style of rule and a single point of attack.

Centralized Finance (CeFi):
A financial system centrally controlled by a government or a small group of private individuals. In contrast to decentralized finance (DeFi), CeFi involves centralized institutions like Voyager and Celsius, as seen in the 2022 bankruptcy fiasco.

The intentional transmission of false signals between network nodes using fake IP addresses. This practice makes consensus impossible for new data, acting as a defense against 51% attacks attempting to introduce invalid blocks into the chain.

Cold Wallet / Cold Storage:
A type of wallet that securely stores crypto assets offline, including hardware wallets and paper wallets.

A layer-one cryptocurrency with its own proprietary blockchain.

Coinless Protocol:
A decentralized network where incentive mechanisms are integrated into the protocol itself, eliminating the need for an additional layer. Designed to create fully autonomous systems without central management.

Indicates how many transactions have been processed and validated on a network since its inception. Confirmed transactions are irreversible without cooperation from others involved in maintaining the shared ledger.

The decentralized network's process of agreeing on the validity of transactions and determining which transactions should be included in a block.

The sale of crypto coins or tokens through crowdfunding, typically conducted before the official launch of a blockchain-based project. Investors participate to benefit from early bonuses and incentives.

The ability of a blockchain or a platform to interact and share information with another blockchain. Cross-chain technology facilitates interoperability between different blockchain networks, allowing assets to move seamlessly across them.

A digital or virtual currency that relies on cryptography for security. Cryptocurrencies, like Bitcoin and Ethereum, use blockchain technology to enable secure, transparent, and decentralized transactions.

Crypto Wallet:
A digital tool that allows users to store, manage, and interact with their cryptocurrencies. Wallets can be hardware-based, software-based, online, or offline, providing various levels of security and accessibility.

Consensus Algorithm:
A set of rules or protocols defining how nodes in a blockchain network agree on the state of the ledger. Common consensus algorithms include Proof-of-Work (PoW), Proof-of-Stake (PoS), and Delegated Proof-of-Stake (DPoS).

Cryptographic Hash Function:
A mathematical algorithm that converts any input (data) into a fixed-size string of characters, which appears random. Cryptographic hash functions are crucial for ensuring data integrity and security in blockchain technology.

Chainlink (LINK):
A decentralized oracle network that enables smart contracts on blockchain platforms to securely connect with real-world data. Chainlink aims to bridge the gap between blockchain-based smart contracts and external data sources.

Crypto Exchange:
A platform where users can buy, sell, and trade cryptocurrencies. Exchanges can be centralized (CEX) or decentralized (DEX), each with its own set of advantages and drawbacks.

Cryptographic Signature:
A digital signature generated using cryptographic algorithms that verify the authenticity and integrity of a message, transaction, or piece of data. Signatures are crucial for validating ownership and authorship in blockchain transactions.


Dapp (Decentralized Application):

Applications built on existing platforms and protocols, focusing on addressing issues in various areas. Dapps utilize tokens and their performance, including transaction speed, TPS, scalability, and stability, is dependent on the platforms they are built upon.


Financial tools allowing investors to trade multiple products based on price without owning them. Derivatives enable investors to control larger asset amounts using leverage.

DeFi (Decentralized Finance):

Financial applications built on blockchains, providing users with access to financial services without reliance on third parties such as banks. Users have full control over their assets within the decentralized finance ecosystem.

DYOR (Do Your Own Research):

The practice of gaining information and knowledge about a particular project before considering an investment. DYOR emphasizes individual research and due diligence.

DEX (Decentralized Exchange):

An exchange without a controlling party, where transactions occur directly between buying and selling parties without intermediaries. Examples include UniSwap, SushiSwap, and PancakeSwap.

DAO (Decentralized Autonomous Organization):

An organization run by members based on an encrypted set of rules, which may involve consensus or smart contracts. DAO members have the right to vote on important decisions and receive rewards for their participation. DAOs represent groups of members cooperating based on a set of rules with a mutual purpose.


A situation in digital currency systems where the same cryptocurrency is spent more than once, posing a risk to the integrity of the network. Blockchain technology mitigates double-spending by ensuring unique representation and use of tokens in transactions.

DAG (Directed Acyclic Graph):

An alternative data structure to traditional blockchains, where transactions are organized in a graph without a specific sequence. DAG-based systems, like IOTA and Nano, aim to address scalability and transaction speed challenges.

Dust Transaction:

A transaction involving a very small amount of cryptocurrency that is often uneconomical to process due to transaction fees. Dust transactions may be aggregated or ignored to avoid cluttering the blockchain.



The process of encoding information to make it challenging to decipher without the aid of a decryption method, such as a key or algorithm.

Entry and Exit Points:

Points at which an investor decides to buy or sell a specific coin or token, crucial in managing investment positions.


A technical standard for smart contracts on the Ethereum blockchain, ensuring compliance with specific rules, including the format for tokens and transaction details.


The Ethereum standard for non-fungible tokens (NFTs) on their blockchain network, defining the structure and behavior of unique digital assets.

Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM):

A Turing-complete virtual machine that facilitates the execution of smart contracts on the Ethereum blockchain. It tracks their state and allows simultaneous execution across the entire network through consensus. The EVM calculates gas prices to prevent abuse and spam.


A web tool that enables users to explore transactions, wallets, and other aspects of Ethereum's blockchain. Etherscan provides charts for data visualization and a tracking list for specific network activities.


Platforms that facilitate the buying, selling, or trading of cryptocurrencies for other digital or traditional currencies like US dollars or euros. Exchanges play a vital role in providing users with access to cryptocurrency funds.

End-to-End Encryption:

A security measure that ensures communication is encrypted from the sender's device to the recipient's device, preventing unauthorized access or interception of data during transit.

Ethereum Improvement Proposal (EIP):

A formal proposal for making changes to the Ethereum blockchain. EIPs may suggest improvements, new features, or modifications to existing protocols, subject to community discussion and consensus.


A financial arrangement where a third party holds and regulates funds or assets on behalf of two parties involved in a transaction. In blockchain, smart contracts can automate and enforce escrow agreements.



A type of currency issued by a government that has no intrinsic value but derives its worth from the country's usability and financial strength. The USD, issued by the US Federal Reserve under the guarantee of the US Federal Government, is a prominent example.


An indicator in technical analysis originating from a mathematical theory by Leonardo Fibonacci in the 12th century. Traders use Fibonacci to draw support and resistance lines, identify entry and exit points, and set stop loss and take profit positions.

FOMO (Fear Of Missing Out):

A psychological phenomenon where investors experience fear of missing out on opportunities. Common in various markets, including stocks, Forex, and cryptocurrencies.

Full Lock Duration:

The total duration of vesting, including any cliff period. For example, "12-month cliff, then linear vesting for 24 months" means tokens will not be released for the first 12 months, followed by a monthly release of 1 out of 24 parts from month 13 to 36.

Full Node:

A node with the capability to install a complete copy of a blockchain and verify new transactions based on consensus principles.

Flash Loan:

Uncollateralized loans with the condition that the borrowed amount must be repaid to the lending platform in the same transaction. Borrowers can utilize the loan for various purposes before settling the borrowed amount, all within a single transaction.

FUD (Fear, Uncertainty & Doubt):

An emotional state among investors triggered by negative news, leading to selling off assets. FUD contributes to market uncertainty.

FDV (Fully Diluted Valuation):

Calculated by multiplying the maximum token supply by the price per token. FDV, or Fully Diluted Valuation, is often provided on price tracking sites like CoinGecko and CoinMarketCap in the information section for each token.


Gas Fee:

The amount of money users pay for transactions, such as buying, selling, or approving, on a blockchain. Gas fees are calculated in Gwei, and a higher Gwei results in a more expensive fee but faster transaction processing. Gas fees vary across different blockchains.

Gas War:

A scenario where multiple users intentionally increase Gwei to accept higher fees, aiming for faster transaction processing. Gas wars impact the blockchain network, causing other users to pay significantly more for transactions. Bots often contribute to the occurrence of gas wars.

Gem (Hidden Gem):

A term referring to projects with high potential and low token prices. Gems are typically associated with low or mid-cap projects that have the potential to provide substantial returns, such as 5x, 10x, or even 100x the initial capital.

Genesis Block:

The first block in a blockchain, often referred to as the genesis block. It serves as the foundation for the entire blockchain and contains unique information that sets the initial parameters for the network.


The process by which decisions and changes to a blockchain's protocol or rules are made. Governance mechanisms can be decentralized, involving community voting or consensus, or centralized, with decision-making authority held by a specific entity.

GPU Mining (Graphics Processing Unit Mining):

The process of validating transactions and adding them to a blockchain using graphics processing units. GPU mining is commonly associated with proof-of-work consensus algorithms, such as the one used in Ethereum.

Green Address:

A term often used to describe a cryptocurrency wallet provider or service that emphasizes environmental sustainability and energy efficiency in its operations.


Hard Fork:

A type of upgrade or modification to a blockchain that is not backward-compatible. A hard fork results in a divergence in the blockchain's history, creating two separate chains, each following its own set of rules.


An event that occurs in some blockchain networks, where the reward for miners is reduced by half. Halvings are programmed into the network's protocol and are typically associated with cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin.

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Hash Function:

A mathematical algorithm that transforms input data into a fixed-size string of characters, commonly represented as a hash. Hash functions play a critical role in blockchain technology, ensuring data integrity and security.

Hot Wallet:

A type of cryptocurrency wallet connected to the internet, making it suitable for frequent transactions and easy access. Hot wallets are convenient but are considered less secure than cold wallets, which are offline.

Hard Fork
Hard fork is an event where the upgraded version of a blockchain conflicts with the original version, causing the whole blockchain system to split into two.

One of the most well known hard forks is Bitcoin Cash, forked from Bitcoin to increase the block limit to 8MB.

Hodl (a.k.a Hold On to Dear Life), or Hold, is a popular term in crypto that refers to an investor holding their cryptocurrencies without selling. Holding coins is a long-term type of investment, where investors buy coins/tokens, then store them for a long period of time, waiting for the price to increase.

People who hold are called Holders, and the opposite are called Traders.


ICO (Initial Coin Offering):
A popular form of fundraising in the crypto space, similar to an Initial Public Offering (IPO) in traditional finance. Companies issue and sell their own tokens to raise capital from investors.

IDO (Initial Decentralized Exchange Offering):
A fundraising method conducted on decentralized platforms like PolkaStarter, DAOMaker, and Poolz, as opposed to traditional centralized exchanges. Investors can participate in token sales on these platforms.

IEO (Initial Exchange Offering):
A crowdfunding method where tokens are sold on centralized exchanges. Binance Launchpad is a notable example of an IEO platform, hosting projects like Injective Protocol (INJ), Sandbox (SAND), and Coin98 (C98).

IFO (Initial Farm Offering):
A fundraising approach where investors use LP (Liquidity Provider) tokens acquired by providing liquidity to a specific pool as tickets to participate in the offering.

IPO (Initial Public Offering):
A traditional financial market fundraising method where companies issue shares and list them on stock exchanges. IPOs enable companies to raise capital by going public and allowing investors to trade their shares on the stock market.

A characteristic of blockchain data, indicating that once recorded, data cannot be altered or deleted. Immutability ensures the integrity and security of information stored on the blockchain.

Incentive Mechanism:
Systems or protocols within blockchain networks designed to encourage specific behaviors or actions. Examples include proof-of-stake rewards, mining rewards, and staking incentives.

The ability of different blockchain networks or systems to interact and exchange information seamlessly. Interoperability is crucial for the integration and functionality of diverse blockchain ecosystems.


In the context of blockchain, jitter refers to the variability in the time it takes for a block to be mined. It can impact the consistency of block generation and the overall performance of the blockchain network.

Java Blockchain:
Refers to the use of Java programming language in blockchain development. Some blockchain platforms and frameworks leverage Java for smart contract development and network interaction.

JSON-RPC (JavaScript Object Notation Remote Procedure Call):
A remote procedure call protocol encoded in JSON. It is commonly used for communication between a client and a server in blockchain applications, allowing for the execution of functions and retrieval of data.

Jurisdictional Arbitrage:
The practice of exploiting the differences in regulations and legal frameworks across different jurisdictions to gain advantages in the blockchain and cryptocurrency space. Companies may choose to operate in jurisdictions with favorable regulations.

Jomobile (Java Object Mobile Identity):
A concept in blockchain that involves using Java Objects for mobile identity management. It aims to enhance security and privacy in mobile identity solutions using blockchain technology.

Just-In-Time (JIT) Compilation:
A technique used in blockchain execution environments where code is compiled into machine code at runtime. JIT compilation can optimize performance by dynamically translating smart contract code into executable instructions.

A decentralized identity platform and protocol designed to provide users with control over their digital identities. Jolocom leverages blockchain technology to enable secure and user-centric identity management.

A technology standard for smart cards that allows Java applets to be run on embedded secure elements. In the blockchain context, JavaCard may be relevant for applications involving hardware wallets or secure key storage.

Joint Venture (JV):
A business arrangement where two or more parties collaborate to undertake a specific project. In the blockchain industry, joint ventures may involve partnerships between companies to develop and implement blockchain solutions.

Jupiter Chain:
A blockchain-based platform that focuses on data exchange and monetization in the context of personal data. Jupiter Chain aims to empower individuals with control over their data and enable businesses to access data for insights.

Just-In-Time (JIT) Blockchain:
A concept related to blockchain scalability, where resources are allocated dynamically as needed. JIT blockchain solutions aim to optimize resource usage and enhance scalability in blockchain networks.


KYC (Know Your Customer):
A regulatory process in which businesses verify the identity of their customers to ensure compliance with anti-money laundering (AML) regulations. KYC is often implemented in blockchain and cryptocurrency exchanges to enhance security and prevent illicit activities.

Key Pair:
In the context of blockchain, a key pair consists of a public key and a private key. The public key is used for encryption and generating addresses, while the private key is kept secret and is used for decryption and signing transactions.

Participants in a decentralized finance (DeFi) ecosystem who perform specific tasks, such as maintaining price oracles, executing smart contracts, and ensuring the smooth operation of decentralized applications (DApps).

A testnet for the Ethereum blockchain, providing a simulated environment for developers to test and deploy smart contracts without using real Ether. Kovan is one of several Ethereum testnets used for development purposes.

A multi-chain network that serves as a canary network for the Polkadot blockchain. Kusama allows developers to experiment with new features and upgrades before deploying them on the more secure and stable Polkadot network.

Keep Network:
A project focused on enabling private and secure data storage on the blockchain. Keep Network provides a bridge between public blockchains and private data, allowing users to encrypt and store sensitive information securely.

A cryptocurrency exchange platform that supports a variety of digital assets for trading. Kraken is known for its robust security features and offers a range of trading pairs and services.

A blockchain platform designed to provide scalable and secure solutions for businesses. Kadena aims to address issues of scalability, security, and interoperability in blockchain technology.

A term sometimes used to refer to testnet tokens or cryptocurrency tokens used in simulated environments for testing and development purposes. Kitcoin is not a real-world cryptocurrency but serves as a placeholder for experimentation.

KDD (Key Derivation Function):
A cryptographic function used to derive one or more secret keys from a master key. KDD is employed in blockchain systems to enhance security by generating unique keys for different purposes, such as wallet addresses and transaction signatures.

A cryptocurrency exchange platform that allows users to trade a variety of digital assets. KuCoin provides features such as spot trading, futures trading, staking, and lending services to its users.



In the blockchain context, layers are often used to denote different levels of a blockchain architecture. Layer 1 represents the foundational blockchain, while Layer 2 solutions address limitations of Layer 1, typically implemented for platforms like Ethereum to overcome challenges such as high transaction fees and scalability issues.

Leaf Node:

A type of node in a blockchain that lacks child nodes. Leaf nodes do not have further nodes extending from them in the blockchain structure.


A platform enabling projects to issue tokens and conduct Initial DEX Offerings (IDO) fundraisings. Prominent launchpads in the market include PolkaStarter, DAO Maker, and SolStarter.


Utilized by traders borrowing funds from platforms to amplify their positions. Leverage allows traders with limited capital to potentially gain higher profits if the market moves favorably. However, it also involves increased risk, especially if the market moves against the trader.


The availability of liquid assets on Decentralized Exchanges (DEXs) or Centralized Exchanges (CEXs). High liquidity indicates a growing market demand, minimizing slippages in transactions. Assets like BTC and ETH, with high liquidity, are less prone to significant price fluctuations with large transactions.

Liquidity Provider:

Users who contribute liquid assets to DEXs like UniSwap, earning transaction fees and potential incentives such as project tokens. However, liquidity providers should carefully assess potential impermanent loss, especially with new, low-liquidity tokens.


A trading strategy where an investor borrows assets with leverage from an exchange to buy an asset. The investor anticipates a price increase, enabling them to sell the asset later at a profit. Long positions can yield substantial profits, but they come with high risk, especially if the market moves unfavorably.

Leveraged Token:

Tokens that aim to amplify returns based on the price movements of an underlying asset, often through the use of leverage. These tokens are designed to provide traders with enhanced exposure to market fluctuations.

Light Node:

A type of node in a blockchain network that does not store the entire blockchain history. Light nodes rely on simplified data verification mechanisms, making them suitable for resource-constrained devices.

Low-Level Programming Language:

A programming language that provides minimal abstraction from computer architecture. In blockchain development, low-level languages like Assembly or C are used for specific optimizations and direct hardware interaction.


The official version of a blockchain released after successful completion of the testnet phase. Upon mainnet release, the coin operates on its independent blockchain with its wallet platform. Adjustments to the mainnet may occur with updates from the project team.

Margin Trading:
A trading method where a user borrows funds from an exchange to augment their capital. Margin trading involves long and short positions, with borrowed assets returned to the exchange after profit-taking or liquidation.

In the crypto context, minting refers to the creation or mining of new tokens. This term is commonly used in projects where users deposit collateral to mint additional tokens.

Money Flow:
The movement of funds into and out of various sections or niches within the crypto space. Increased money flow into an ecosystem generally results in price rises for most tokens within it.

Projects that integrate multiple blockchains, allowing assets on different chains to be utilized for services without the need for conversion to a specific blockchain.

Market Cap (Market Capitalization):
The value of a project's coin or token in the market, calculated using the formula: Market cap = Coin price * Circulating supply.

Servers that perform various functions within a blockchain system. In practice, masternodes are blockchain wallets running online at a fixed static IP address.

Mining, Miner:
The process of introducing new coins into circulation, with miners being the participants who perform this function. Miners use computational power to validate transactions and secure the blockchain.


NFT (Non-Fungible Token):

NFTs are unique digital assets representing ownership or proof of authenticity of a specific item, often associated with digital art, collectibles, and virtual real estate.


A participant in a blockchain network responsible for validating and propagating transactions. Nodes maintain the distributed ledger and contribute to the network's security.


A number used only once in a cryptographic context, such as in the proof-of-work consensus algorithm. Nonces are crucial for generating a hash that meets certain criteria, adding difficulty to mining.

Network Fork:

A divergence in the blockchain where two or more versions of the blockchain share a common history but then split into separate paths. Forks can be soft forks (backward-compatible) or hard forks (not backward-compatible).

Nakamoto Consensus:

The consensus mechanism introduced by Satoshi Nakamoto in the Bitcoin whitepaper. It relies on proof-of-work and a decentralized network to validate transactions and secure the blockchain.

Native Token:

The primary cryptocurrency of a blockchain platform. Examples include Bitcoin (BTC) on the Bitcoin blockchain and Ether (ETH) on the Ethereum blockchain.



In blockchain, an oracle is a third-party service that provides external data to smart contracts. Oracles enable blockchain applications to interact with real-world information.


Activities or transactions that occur directly on the blockchain. On-chain data is stored and verified on the blockchain itself.


Activities or transactions that occur outside the blockchain. Off-chain solutions involve handling certain processes without directly using the blockchain, often for scalability reasons.

Orphan Block:

A valid block that is not part of the main blockchain. Orphan blocks occur when two miners solve a block simultaneously, leading to a temporary fork in the blockchain.

Over-the-Counter (OTC) Trading:

Trading of cryptocurrencies directly between two parties without the involvement of an exchange. OTC trading is often used for large transactions and provides greater privacy.


P2P (Peer-to-Peer):

A decentralized network model where participants interact directly with each other without intermediaries. P2P networks are a foundational concept in blockchain technology.

Private Key:

A cryptographic key known only to the owner, allowing control over their cryptocurrency assets. It is crucial for signing transactions and accessing funds on the blockchain.

Proof-of-Authority (PoA):

A consensus mechanism where validators are chosen based on their reputation or authority. PoA is often used in private or consortium blockchains.

Privacy Coin:

A type of cryptocurrency designed to enhance user privacy by implementing features that obscure transaction details, making it challenging to trace the flow of funds.


A set of rules and standards defining how data is transmitted and verified within a network. Blockchain protocols determine how nodes interact and reach consensus.

Public Key:

A cryptographic key used for encryption and generating addresses in blockchain. It can be freely shared and is paired with a private key.


Quantum Resistance:

The resistance of a cryptographic algorithm or system to attacks using quantum computers. Quantum-resistant cryptography is designed to withstand potential threats from quantum computing advancements.


The minimum number of votes required for a blockchain network to reach consensus on a transaction or decision. Quorum is essential for ensuring the security and validity of transactions.

QR Code:

A Quick Response code that stores information in a two-dimensional barcode. In blockchain, QR codes are often used for easy sharing of wallet addresses and transaction details.



A potential vulnerability in smart contracts where an attacker can repeatedly call the same function before previous calls complete, potentially leading to unexpected behavior. Proper precautions are necessary to prevent reentrancy attacks.

Rug Pull:

A deceptive maneuver in the crypto space where developers or participants suddenly abandon a project after attracting significant investments, leaving investors with worthless tokens.


Smart Contract: Self-executing contracts with predefined rules written in code. Smart contracts automatically enforce and execute terms when specific conditions are met.

The process of improving a blockchain's capacity to handle a larger number of transactions per second. Scaling solutions aim to address issues of network congestion and slow transaction processing.

A process where users lock up their cryptocurrency as collateral to participate in the consensus mechanism of a proof-of-stake blockchain. Stakers are rewarded with additional cryptocurrency for securing the network.

Smart Oracle:
An advanced form of oracle that not only provides external data to smart contracts but can also execute predefined actions based on that data, adding automation to blockchain applications.



The economic model and principles governing the creation, distribution, and management of tokens within a blockchain ecosystem.

Token Swap:
The exchange of one cryptocurrency or token for another, often facilitated by decentralized exchanges (DEXs) or automated market maker (AMM) protocols.



A decentralized exchange (DEX) on the Ethereum blockchain that enables users to swap various ERC-20 tokens directly from their wallets.

Unspent Transaction Output (UTXO):
A model used in some blockchain architectures, including Bitcoin, where each transaction creates a set of unspent outputs that can be used as inputs in future transactions.



The degree of variation in the price of a cryptocurrency over time. High volatility implies significant price fluctuations, while low volatility suggests stability.

A participant in a proof-of-stake or delegated proof-of-stake consensus mechanism responsible for validating transactions and creating new blocks. Validators are chosen based on the amount of cryptocurrency they hold or other criteria.



A digital tool used to store, send, and receive cryptocurrencies. Wallets can be software-based (online, desktop, mobile) or hardware-based (physical devices).

Wrapped Token:
A representation of an underlying asset, typically on a different blockchain. Wrapped tokens enable the transfer of assets between different blockchain ecosystems.


XRP: The native cryptocurrency of the Ripple network, designed for fast and low-cost international money transfers.

Yield Farming: A strategy in decentralized finance (DeFi) where users provide liquidity to earn rewards, often in the form of additional tokens or interest.

An alternative abbreviation for Bitcoin (BTC), often used in financial contexts. While BTC is the more common symbol, XBT adheres to the International Standards Organization (ISO) currency code conventions.


The return on investment generated by holding or staking cryptocurrencies. Yield can come in various forms, including interest, rewards, or dividends.


Zero-Knowledge Proof:

A cryptographic method allowing one party to prove possession of specific information without revealing the information itself. Enhances privacy in blockchain transactions.

A privacy-focused cryptocurrency that allows users to make shielded transactions, concealing the sender, recipient, and transaction amount. Zcash uses zero-knowledge proofs to enhance privacy.

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